India has various types of soils, water resources, soil fertility levels, climate, and climatic situations due to which diverse types of crops grow in India. The most widely cultivated crops in India are field crops. The main crops-grown states in India are West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Chhattisgarh. You will also know about What is plantation agriculture.
The agricultural harvest year in India is from July to June. The Indian cropping season is categorized into two major seasons Kharif and Rabi based on the monsoon. The Kharif cropping season is from July to October during the southwest monsoon and the Rabi cropping season is from October-March to winter. The harvests grown between March and June are summer crops.
1. Rabi crops
Rabi crops are cultivated in winter from October to December and harvested in summer from April to June. Some of the essential Rabi crops are wheat, barley, peas, gram, and mustard. Though these crops are grown in huge parts of India, states fr north and northwestern parts of Punjab, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh are important for the output of wheat and other rabi crops. The availability of snow during the winter months due to the western temperate cyclones helps in the achievement of these crops. However, the success of the green revolution in Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan as seasons is important to the growth FTP of the above-mentioned rabi crops. Farmer use terrace farming
2. Kharif crops
Kharif crops are grown with the start of the monsoon in various parts of India and these are planted September-October. Valuable harvests ripened during this season are paddy, maize, jawar, bajra, tur (arhar), moong, urad, cotton, jute, groundnut, and soybean. Some of the most significant rice-growing regions are Assam, West Bengal, coastal regions of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Maharashtra, particularly the (Konkan coast) along with Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Newly, paddy has also become a significant crop in Punjab and Haryana. In states such as Assam, West Bengal, and Odisha, three crops of paddy are grown in a year. These are Aus, Aman, and Boro.
The Kharif season varies in every province of the country but is normally from June to September. We cultivate the harvest at the beginning of the monsoon season around June and harvest by September or October. Rice, maize, bajra, ragi, soybean, groundnut, and cotton are all Kharif crops.
3. Fiber Crops
Fiber crops are grown for their fibres that contain a large amount of cellulose that is good for strength. For example, cotton, jute, coir, etc. They are traditionally formulated in big factories and then placed in markets for trading, for example, cotton clothes, jute bags, etc.
Fibre crops are generally harvestable after a single growing season, as distinct from trees, which are generally grown for many years before being harvested for such substances as wood pulp fibre or lacebark. In particular circumstances, fiber crops can be superior to wood pulp fibre in terms of technical performance, environmental impact or cost.
4. Zaid Crop
This is the third category of the crop in India. The crops grow in the Zaid season i.e., between March to June. This is the smallest season compared to Kharif and Rabi season crops. For example, bitter gourd, watermelon, etc. Cucumber:We all generally prefer our salads. It has health advantages too like promoting hydration, rich in vitamins, etc. Pumpkin:It is considered for weight loss. It boosts our immune system.
In between the rabi and the Kharif seasons, there is a small season during the summer months known as the zaid crop season. Some of the crops generated during the Zaid season are watermelon, muskmelon, cucumber, vegetables and fodder products. We hope you find this information helpful.